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Neuroimmune disorders of the central nervous system in children in the molecular era. Nat Rev Neurol. J Child Neurol. Pediatr Neurol. Epub Apr 9. PMID: Brain Pathol. Mutations in SZT2 result in early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and leukoencephalopathy. Am J Med Genet A. Epub Apr JIMD Rep. The spectrum of adult-onset heritable white-matter disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. Complex care of individuals with multiple sulfatase deficiency: Clinical cases and consensus statement. Mol Genet Metab. Epub Jan Adulthood leukodystrophies. Epub Jan 5. Clin Genet. Epub Dec TUBB4A mutations result in specific neuronal and oligodendrocytic defects that closely match clinically distinct phenotypes.

Hum Mol Genet. Biallelic mutations in the homeodomain of NKX underlie a severe hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Epub Sep X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a chimpanzee due to an ABCD1 mutation reported in multiple unrelated humans. Epub Sep 1. Revised consensus statement on the preventive and symptomatic care of patients with leukodystrophies. Epub Aug Thiamine deficiency in childhood with attention to genetic causes: Survival and outcome predictors.

Ann Neurol. Functionally pathogenic EARS2 variants in vitro may not manifest a phenotype in vivo. Neurol Genet. Epub Jul Corrigendum: Mutations in SNORD cause the cerebral microangiopathy leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts. Nat Genet. Epub Nov Alexander disease: A leukodystrophy that may mimic brain tumor. Pediatric Pediatr Neurol. ACBD5 deficiency causes a defect in peroxisomal very long-chain fatty acid metabolism. J Med Genet. Dallabona C.

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He burned the town and slew the English sheriff William Hezelrig. About 1 m. The stream is crossed by a bridge of single span, supposed to be Roman, and by a three-arched bridge, designed by Thomas Telford and erected in On the right bank, near this bridge, is the cave in which Wallace concealed himself after killing Hezelrig and which still bears his name. Lanark was the centre of much activity in the days of the Covenanters. William Lithgow , the traveller, William Smellie , the obstetrician and Gavin Hamilton , the painter, were born at Lanark.

The town is one of the Falkirk district group of parliamentary burghs, the other constituents being Airdrie, Hamilton, Falkirk and Linlithgow. New Lanark pop. The village was founded by David Dale in , with the support of Sir Richard Arkwright, inventor of the spinning-frame, who thought the spot might be made the Manchester of Scotland. In ten years four cotton mills were running, employing nearly hands.

They were sold in to a Manchester company, who appointed Owen manager. For many years the mills were successfully conducted, but friction ultimately arose and Owen retired in The mills, however, are still carried on. There are several interesting places near Lanark. Braxfield, on the Clyde, gave the title of Lord Braxfield to Robert Macqueen , who was born in the mansion and acquired on the bench the character of the Scottish Jeffreys. Lee House, the home of the Lockharts, is 3 m. The old castle was largely rebuilt in the 19th century. It is described as a cornelian encased in a silver coin.

Its area is sq. It may be described as embracing the valley of the Clyde; and, in addition to the gradual descent from the high land in the south, it is also characterized by a gentle slope towards both banks of the river. The shire is divided into three wards, the Upper, comprising all the southern section, or more than half the whole area over , acres ; the Middle, with Hamilton for its chief town, covering fully , acres; and the Lower, occupying the northern area of about 40, acres.

The surface falls gradually from the uplands in the south to the Firth of Clyde. The highest hills are nearly all on or close to the borders of Peeblesshire and Dumfriesshire, and include Culter Fell ft. Ordovician strata cross the county from S. This fault runs by Lamington, Roberton and Crawfordjohn. The Old Red Sandstone covers an irregular tract north of the Ordovician belt; a lower division consisting of sandstone, conglomerates and mud-stones is the most extensively developed; above this is found a series of contemporaneous porphyrites and melaphyres, conformable upon the lower division in the west of the county but are not so in the east.

An upper series of sandstones and grits is seen for a short distance west of Lamington. Economically the most important geological feature is the coal basin of the Glasgow district. The axis of this basin lies in a N.


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There are eleven beds of workable coal, the more important seams being the Ell, Main, Splint, Pyotshaw and Virtuewell. Underlying the coal-measures is the Millstone Grit seen on the northern side between Glenboig and Hogganfield—here the fireclays of Garnkirk, Gartcosh and Glenboig are worked—and on the south and south-east of the coal-measures, but not on the western side, because it is there cut out by a fault.

It will be observed that in general the younger formations lie nearer the centre of the basin and the older ones crop out around them. Besides the volcanic rocks mentioned there are intrusive basalts in the Carboniferous rocks like that in the neighbourhood of Shotts, and the smaller masses at Hogganfield near Glasgow and elsewhere.


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Volcanic necks are found in the Carluke and Kilcadzow districts, marking the vents of former volcanoes and several dikes of Tertiary age traverse the older rocks. An intrusion of pink felsite in early Old Red times has been the cause of Tinto Hill. Evidences of the Glacial period are abundant in the form of kames and other deposits of gravel, sand and boulder clay.

The ice in flowing northward and southward from the higher ground took an easterly direction when it reached the lower ground. In the lower reaches of the Clyde the remains of old beaches at 25, 50 and ft. Climate and Agriculture. The area under grain has shown a downward tendency since Oats is the principal crop, but barley and wheat are also grown. Potatoes and turnips are raised on a large scale. In the Lower Ward market-gardening has increased considerably, and the quantity of vegetables, grapes and tomatoes reared under glass has reached great proportions.

An ancient industry in the vale of the Clyde for many miles below Lanark is the cultivation of fruit, several of the orchards being said to date from the time of Bede. The apples and pears are of good repute. There has been a remarkable extension in the culture of strawberries, hundreds of acres being laid down in beds.

Clydesdale draught-horses are of high class. They are supposed to have been bred from Flanders horses imported early in the 18th century by the 5th duke of Hamilton. Most of the horses are kept for agricultural work, but a considerable number of unbroken horses and mares are maintained for stock. Pigs are numerous, being extensively reared by the miners. The largest farms are situated in the Upper Ward, but the general holding runs from 50 to acres.

More than 21, acres are under wood. Other Industries. The North British Railway Company serves various towns in the lower and middle wards and its lines to Edinburgh cross the northwestern corner and the north of the county. Only in the immediate neighbourhood of Glasgow does the Glasgow and South Western system compete for Lanarkshire traffic, though it combines with the Caledonian to work the Mid-Lanarkshire and Ayrshire railway.

The Monkland Canal in the far north and the Forth and Clyde Canal in the north and north-west carry a considerable amount of goods, and before the days of railways afforded one of the principal means of communication between east and west. Population and Administration. Thus though only tenth in point of extent, it is much the most populous county in Scotland, containing within its bounds nearly one-third of the population of the country. In there were persons speaking Gaelic only, and 26, speaking Gaelic and English. The chief towns, with populations in , apart from Glasgow, are Airdrie 22, , Cambuslang 12, , Coatbridge 36, , Govan 82, , Hamilton 32, , Kinning Park 13, , Larkhall 11, , Motherwell 30, , Partick 54, , Rutherglen 17, , Shettleston 12, , Wishaw 20, The county is divided into six parliamentary divisions:—North-east, North-west, Mid and South Lanark, Govan and Partick each returning one member.

Glasgow returns seven members to Parliament; Airdrie, Hamilton and Lanark belong to the Falkirk group and Rutherglen to the Kilmarnock group of parliamentary burghs. Lanarkshire is a sheriffdom, whose sheriff-principal is confined to his judicial duties in the county, and he has eight substitutes, five of whom sit constantly in Glasgow, and one each at Airdrie, Hamilton and Lanark. The shire is under school-board jurisdiction, many schools earning grants for higher education.

For advanced education, besides the university and many other institutions in Glasgow there are a high school in Hamilton, and technical schools at Coatbridge and Wishaw. A director of technical education is maintained by the council. Lanark, Motherwell and Biggar entrust their shares of the grant to the county council, and Coatbridge and Airdrie themselves subsidize science and art and evening classes and continuation schools. Traces of their fortifications, mounds and circles exist, while stone axes, bronze celts, querns and urns belonging to their age are occasionally unearthed.

Of the Romans there are traces in the camp on Beattock summit near Elvanfoot, in the fine bridge over the Mouse near Lanark, in the road to the south of Strathaven, in the wall already mentioned and in the coins and other relics that have been dug up. After their departure the country which included Lanarkshire formed part of the kingdom of Strathclyde, which, in the 7th century, was subdued by Northumbrian Saxons, when great numbers of the Celts migrated into Wales. The county once embraced a portion of Renfrewshire, but this was disjoined in the time of Robert III.

The shire was then divided into two wards, the Over with Lanark as its chief town and the Nether with Rutherglen as its capital. The present division into three wards was not effected till the 18th century. Independently of Glasgow, Lanarkshire has not borne any part continuously in the general history of Scotland, but has been the scene of several exciting episodes. See W. Irving and A. The area is The coast is generally flat, and broken by great inlets, with wide expanses of sandy foreshore at low tide.

The chief inlets, from N. Morecambe Bay receives the rivers Crake and Leven in a common estuary, and the Kent from Westmorland; while the Lune and the Wyre discharge into Lancaster Bay, which is only partially separated from Morecambe Bay by the promontory of Red Nab. Morecambe Bay also detaches from the rest of the county the district of Furness q. The principal seaside resorts and watering-places, from S.

Of the rivers the Mersey q. The Ribble, which rises in the mountains of the West Riding of Yorkshire, forms for a few miles the boundary with that county, and then flows S. Lancashire has a share in two of the English districts most famous for their scenery, but does not include the finest part of either. Furness, entirely hilly except for a narrow coastal tract, extends N.

Another elevated district, forming part of a mountainous chain stretching from the Scottish border, covered by the name of Pennine uplands in its broader application, runs along the whole eastern boundary of the main portion of the county, and to the south of the Ribble occupies more than half the area, stretching west nearly to Liverpool. The moorlands in the southern district are generally bleak and covered with heather. Towards the north the scenery is frequently beautiful, the green rounded elevated ridges being separated by pleasant cultivated valleys variegated by woods and watered by rivers.

None of the summits of the range within Lancashire attains an elevation of ft. Along the sea-coast from the Mersey to Lancaster there is a continuous plain formerly occupied by peat mosses, many of which have been reclaimed. The largest is Chat Moss between Liverpool and Manchester. In some instances these mosses have exhibited the phenomenon of a moving bog. A large district in the north belonging to the duchy of Lancaster was at one time occupied by forests, but these have wholly disappeared, though their existence is recalled in nomenclature, as in the Forest of Rossendale, near the Yorkshire boundary somewhat south of the centre.

The Carboniferous system includes the great coal-field in which are gathered all the principal manufacturing towns, Colne, Burnley, Blackburn, Chorley, Wigan, Bolton, Preston, Oldham, Rochdale and Manchester. In the centre of the coal-field is an elevated moorland tract formed of the grits and shales of the Millstone Grit series. Part of the small coal-field of Ingleton also lies within the county. Between these two coal basins there is a moderately hilly district in which grits and black shales predominate, with a broad tract of limestone and shales which are well exposed in the quarries at Clitheroe and at Longridge, Chipping, Whalley and Downham.

Large pockets of rich iron ore are worked in the limestone in the Furness district. The belt of Trias includes the Bunter sandstone and conglomerate, which ranges from Barrow-in-Furness, through Garstang, Preston, Ormskirk, Liverpool, Warrington and Salford; and Keuper marls, which underlie the surface between the Bunter outcrop and the sea. On the coast there is a considerable development of blown sand between Blackpool and Lytham and between Southport and Seaforth.

These rocks are bounded by the Ordovician Coniston limestone, ranging north-east and south-west, and the volcanic series of Borrowdale. A good deal of the solid geology is obscured in many places by glacial drift, boulder clay and sands. The available coal supply of Lancashire has been estimated at about five thousand millions of tons.

In the amount raised was 8,, tons; in it was 24,, tons. In the production of coal Lancashire vies with Yorkshire, but each is about one-third below Durham. There are also raised in large quantities—fireclay, limestone, sandstone, slate and salt, which is also obtained from brine. The red hematitic iron obtained in the Furness district is very valuable, but is liable to decrease.

The district also produces a fine blue slate. Metals, excepting iron, are unimportant. From its westerly situation and the attraction of the hills there is a high rainfall in the hilly districts e. The soil after reclamation and drainage is fertile; but, as it is for the most part a strong clayey loam it requires a large amount of labour. In some districts it is more of a peaty nature, and in the Old Red Sandstone districts of the Mersey there is a tract of light sandy loam, easily worked, and well adapted for wheat and potatoes.

In many districts the ground has been rendered unfit for agricultural operations by the rubbish from coal-pits. A low proportion about seven-tenths of the total area is under cultivation, and of this nearly three-fourths is in permanent pasture, cows being largely kept for the supply of milk to the towns, while in the uplands many sheep are reared. In addition to the cultivated area, about 92, acres are under hill pasturage. A gradual increase is noticeable in the acreage under oats, which occupy more than seven-tenths of the area under grain crops, and in that under wheat, to the exclusion of the cultivation of barley.

Of green crops the potato is the chief. Industries and Trade. It employs upwards of , operatives. The worsted, woollen and silk manufactures, flax, hemp and jute industries, though of less importance, employ considerable numbers. Non-textile factories employ about , hands. For the same purpose there is a large branch of industry in the manufacture of bobbins from the wood grown in the northern districts of the county. Of industries principally confined to certain definite centres there may be mentioned—the manufacture of iron and steel at Barrow-in-Furness, a town of remarkably rapid growth since the middle of the 19th century; the great glass works at St Helens; the watch-making works at Prescot and the leather works at Warrington.

Printing, bleaching and dyeing works, paper and chemical works, india-rubber and tobacco manufactures are among the chief of the other resources of this great industrial region. Besides the port of Liverpool, of worldwide importance, the principal ports are Manchester, brought into communication with the sea by the Manchester Ship Canal opened in , Barrow-in-Furness and Fleetwood, while Preston and Lancaster have docks and a considerable shipping trade by the rivers Lune and Ribble respectively.

The sea fisheries, for which Fleetwood and Liverpool are the chief ports, are of considerable value. In the Sankey canal, 10 m. Shortly afterwards the duke of Bridgewater projected the great canal from Manchester across the Irwell to Worsley, completed in and bearing the name of its originator. The Leeds and Liverpool canal, begun in , connects Liverpool and other important towns with Leeds by a circuitous route of m. The other principal canals are the Rochdale, the Manchester to Huddersfield and the Lancaster, connecting Preston and Kendal.

A short canal connects Ulverston with Morecambe Bay. A network of railways covers the industrial region. It also serves Liverpool and Manchester, providing the shortest route to each of these cities from London, and shares with the Lancashire and Yorkshire company joint lines to Southport, to Blackpool and to Fleetwood, whence there is regular steamship communication with Belfast. The Lancashire and Yorkshire line serves practically all the important centres as far north as Preston and Fleetwood.

All the northern trunk lines from London have services to Manchester and Liverpool. The Cheshire Lines system, worked by a committee of the Great Northern, Great Central and Midland companies, links their systems with the South Lancashire district generally, and maintains lines between Liverpool and Manchester, both these cities with Southport, and numerous branches. Its population in was ,; in , 3,,; and in , 4,, The area of the administrative county is 1,, acres. The distribution of the industrial population may be best appreciated by showing the parliamentary divisions, parliamentary, county and municipal boroughs and urban districts as placed among the four divisions of the ancient county.

In the case of urban districts the name of the great town to which each is near or adjacent follows where necessary. The figures show population in Northern Division. It is considerably the largest of the divisions. Parliamentary divisions , from N. Parliamentary, county and municipal boroughs —Barrow-in-Furness 57,; one member ; Preston ,; two members. Municipal boroughs —Blackpool county borough; 47, , Chorley 26, , Lancaster 40,; county town , Morecambe 11, Parliamentary divisions —Accrington, Clitheroe, Darwen, Rossendale. Parliamentary, county and municipal boroughs —Blackburn ,; two members ; Burnley 97,; one member.

Municipal boroughs —Accrington 43, , Bacup 22, , Clitheroe 11, , Colne 23, , Darwen 38, , Haslingden 18,, extending into South-Eastern division , Nelson 32, , Rawtenstall 31, South-Western Division. Parliamentary boroughs —the city and county and municipal borough of Liverpool ,; nine members ; the county and municipal boroughs of St Helens 84,; one member ; Wigan 60,; one member , Warrington 64,; a part only of the parliamentary borough is in this county. Municipal boroughs —Bootle 58, , Leigh 40, , Southport county borough; 48, , Widnes 28, South-Eastern Division. Parliamentary boroughs —the city and county of a city of Manchester ,; six members ; with which should be correlated the adjoining county and municipal borough of Salford ,; three members , also the county and municipal boroughs of Bolton ,; two members , Bury 58,; one member , Rochdale 83,; one member , Oldham ,; two members , and the municipal borough of Ashton-under-Lyne 43, Part only of the last parliamentary borough is within the county, and this division also contains part of the parliamentary boroughs of Stalybridge and Stockport.

Municipal boroughs —Eccles 34, , Heywood 25, , Middleton 25, , Mossley 13, Lancashire is one of the counties palatine. It is attached to the duchy of Lancaster, a crown office, and retains the chancery court for the county palatine. The chancery of the duchy of Lancaster was once a court of appeal for the chancery of the county palatine, but now even its jurisdiction in regard to the estates of the duchy is merely nominal.

The chancery of the county palatine has concurrent jurisdiction with the High Court of Chancery in all matters of equity within the county palatine, and independent jurisdiction in regard to a variety of other matters. The county palatine comprises six hundreds. Lancashire is in the northern circuit, and assizes are held at Lancaster for the north, and at Liverpool and Manchester for the south of the county.

There is one court of quarter sessions, and the county is divided into 33 petty sessional divisions. There are civil parishes. Lancashire is mainly in the diocese of Manchester, but parts are in those of Liverpool, Carlisle, Ripon, Chester and Wakefield. There are ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part within the county. Manchester and Liverpool are each seats of a university and of other important educational institutions. Within the bounds of the county there are many denominational colleges, and near Clitheroe is the famous Roman Catholic college of Stonyhurst.

There is a day training college for schoolmasters in connexion with University College, Liverpool, and a day training college for both schoolmasters and schoolmistresses in connexion with Owens College, Manchester. At Edgehill, Liverpool, there is a residential training college for schoolmistresses which takes day pupils, at Liverpool a residential Roman Catholic training college for schoolmasters, and at Warrington a residential training college Chester, Manchester and Liverpool diocesan for schoolmistresses.

The part north of the Ribble was not absorbed in the Northumbrian kingdom till the reign of Ecgfrith Of the details of this long struggle we know nothing, but to the stubborn resistance made by the British leaders are due the legends of Arthur; and of the twelve great battles he is supposed to have fought against the English, four are traditionally, though probably erroneously, said to have taken place on the river Douglas near Wigan. In the long struggle for supremacy between Mercia and Northumbria, the country between the Mersey and Ribble was sometimes under one, sometimes under the other kingdom.

During the 9th century Lancashire was constantly invaded by the Danes, and after the peace of Wedmore it was included in the Danish kingdom of Northumbria. The A. Chronicle records the reconquest of the district between the Ribble and Mersey in by the English king, when it appears to have been severed from the kingdom of Northumbria and united to Mercia, but the districts north of the Ribble now comprised in the county belonged to Northumbria until its incorporation with the kingdom of England.

The names on the Lancashire coast ending in by , such as Crosby, Formby, Roby, Kirkby, Derby, show where the Danish settlements were thickest.

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William the Conqueror gave the lands between the Ribble and Mersey, and Amounderness to Roger de Poictou, but at the time of Domesday Book these had passed out of his hand and belonged to the king. The name Lancashire does not appear in Domesday; the lands between the Ribble and Mersey were included in Cheshire and those north of the Ribble in Yorkshire. Roger de Poictou soon regained his lands, and Rufus added to his possessions the rest of Lonsdale south of the Sands, of which he already held a part; and as he had the Furness fells as well, he owned all that is now known as Lancashire.

In he finally forfeited all his lands, which Henry I. Henry II. In , however, all the crown demesne between the Ribble and Mersey was granted to Ranulf, earl of Chester, and on his death in came to William Ferrers, earl of Derby, in right of his wife Agnes, sister and co-heir of Ranulf. In Henry III. His son, Earl Thomas, married the heiress of Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and thus obtained the great estates belonging to the de Lacys in Lancashire.

The county of Lancaster is first mentioned in as contributing marks to the Royal Exchequer for defaults and fines. The creation of the honour decided the boundaries, throwing into it Furness and Cartmel, which geographically belong to Westmorland; Lonsdale and Amounderness, which in Domesday had been surveyed under Yorkshire; and the land between the Ribble and Mersey. Neither Amounderness nor Lonsdale was called a hundred in Domesday, but soon after that time the former was treated as a hundred. Ecclesiastically the whole of the county originally belonged to the diocese of York, but after the reconquest of the district between the Ribble and Mersey in this part was placed under the bishop of Lichfield in the archdeaconry of Chester, which was subdivided into the rural deaneries of Manchester, Warrington and Leyland.

Up to the district north of the Ribble belonged to the archdeaconry of Richmond in the diocese of York, and was subdivided into the rural deaneries of Amounderness, Lonsdale and Coupland. In the diocese of Chester was created, including all Lancashire, which was divided into two archdeaconries: Chester, comprising the rural deaneries of Manchester, Warrington and Blackburn, and Richmond, comprising the deaneries of Amounderness, Furness, Lonsdale and Kendal.

In the diocese of Manchester was created, which included all Lancashire except parts of West Derby, which still belonged to the diocese of Chester, and Furness and Cartmel, which were added to Carlisle in In by the creation of the diocese of Liverpool the south-eastern part of the county was subtracted from the Manchester diocese. No shire court was ever held for the county, but as a duchy and county palatine it has its own special courts. It may have enjoyed palatine jurisdiction under Earl Morcar before the Conquest, but these privileges, if ever exercised, remained in abeyance till , when Henry, duke of Lancaster, received power to have a chancery in the county of Lancaster and to issue writs therefrom under his own seal, as well touching pleas of the crown as any other relating to the common laws, and to have all Jura Regalia belonging to a county palatine.

In the duchy court of Lancaster was created, in which all questions of revenue and dignities affecting the duchy possessions are settled. The chancery of the duchy has been for years practically obsolete. The duchy and county palatine each has its own seal. The office of chancellor of the duchy and county palatine dates back to Lancashire is famed for the number of old and important county families living within its borders.

The most intimately connected with the history of the county are the Stanleys, whose chief seat is Knowsley Hall. Sir John Stanley early in the 15th century married the heiress of Lathom and thus obtained possession of Lathom and Knowsley. In the head of the family was created a peer by the title of Baron Stanley and in raised to the earldom of Derby. In the two families intermarried. In the title of Baron Skelmersdale was bestowed on the head of the family and in that of earl of Lathorn. Bryn came into this family by marriage early in the 14th century.

Sir Thomas Gerard was created a baronet by James I. The Gerards of Ince were a collateral branch. The Lindsays, earls of Crawford and Balcarres, are representative on the female side of the Bradshaighs of Haigh Hall, who are said to be of Saxon origin. Other great Lancashire families are the Hoghtons of Hoghton Tower, dating back to the 12th century, the Blundells of Ince Blundell, who are said to have held the manor since the 12th century, now represented by the Weld-Blundells, the Tyldesleys of Tyldesley, now extinct, and the Butlers of Bewsey, barons of Warrington, of whom the last male heir died in At the close of the 12th and during the 13th century there was a considerable advance in the importance of the towns; in Lancaster became a borough, in Liverpool, in Salford, in Wigan, and in Manchester.

The Scottish wars were a great drain to the county, not only because the north part was subject to frequent invasions, as in , but because some of the best blood was taken for these wars. In Lancashire raised men, and at the battle of Falkirk Lancashire soldiers were in the vanguard, led by Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln. In the county was visited by the Black Death and a record exists of its ravages in Amounderness. In ten parishes between September and January , 13, persons perished.

At Preston died, at Lancaster , at Garstang and at Kirkham From the effects of this plague Lancashire was apparently slow to recover; its boroughs ceased to return members early in the 14th century and trade had not yet made any great advance. At the battle of Flodden the Lancashire archers led by Sir Edward Stanley almost totally destroyed the Highlanders on the right Scottish wing and greatly contributed to the victory.

Under the Tudors the county prospered; the parliamentary boroughs once more began to return members, the towns increased in size, many halls were built by the gentry and trade increased. In James I. The great centre of this witchcraft was Pendle Forest, in the parish of Whalley, and in twelve persons from Pendle and eight from Samlesbury were tried for witchcraft, nine of whom were hanged.

In another batch of seventeen witches from Pendle were tried and all sentenced to be executed, but the king pardoned them. This was the last important case of witchcraft in Lancashire. On the whole, the county was Royalist, and the moving spirit among the Royalists was Lord Strange, who became Lord Derby in Manchester was the headquarters of the Parliamentarians, and was besieged by Lord Derby in September for seven days, but not taken. Lord Derby himself took up his headquarters at Warrington and garrisoned Wigan. At the opening of Sir Thomas Fairfax made Manchester his headquarters.

Early in February the Parliamentarians from Manchester successfully assaulted Preston, which was strongly Royalist; thence the Parliamentarians marched to Hoghton Tower, which they took, and within a few days captured Lancaster. In March a large Spanish ship, laden with ammunition for the use of parliament, was driven by a storm on Rossall Point and seized by the Royalists; Lord Derby ordered the ship to be burned, but the parliament forces from Preston succeeded in carrying off some of the guns to Lancaster castle.

In March Lord Derby captured the town of Lancaster but not the castle, and marching to Preston regained it for the king, but was repulsed in an attack on Bolton. Lord Derby also failed in an attempt on Liverpool, and the tide of war had clearly turned against the Royalists in Lancashire.

Soon after, the Parliamentarians captured Hornby castle, and only two strongholds, Thurland castle and Lathom house, remained in Royalist hands. The siege lasted nearly four months and was raised on the approach of Prince Rupert, who marched to Bolton and was joined on his arrival outside the town by Lord Derby. Bolton was carried by storm; Rupert ordered that no quarter should be given, and it is usually said at least of the garrison were slain. Prince Rupert advanced without delay to Liverpool, which was defended by Colonel Moore, and took it after a siege of three weeks.

After the battle of Marston Moor Prince Rupert again appeared in Lancashire and small engagements took place at Ormskirk, Upholland and Preston; in November Liverpool surrendered to the Parliamentarians. For the moment the war in Lancashire was over. In , however, the Royalist forces under the duke of Hamilton and Sir Marmaduke Langdale marched through Lancaster to Preston, hoping to reach Manchester; but near Preston were defeated by Cromwell in person.

The remnant retreated through Wigan towards Warrington, and after being again defeated at Winwick surrendered at Warrington. In Charles II.

On the 7th of November the Scottish army entered Lancaster, where the Pretender was proclaimed king, and advanced to Preston, at which place a considerable body of Roman Catholics joined it. The rebels remained at Preston a few days, apparently unaware of the advance of the government troops, until General Wills from Manchester and General Carpenter from Lancaster surrounded the town, and on the 13th of November the town and the rebel garrison surrendered.

Several of the rebels were hanged at Preston, Wigan, Lancaster and other places. In Prince Charles Edward passed through the county and was joined by about adherents, called the Manchester regiment and placed under the command of Colonel Townley, who was afterwards executed. The first industry established in Lancashire was that of wool, and with the founding of Furness abbey in wool farming on a large scale began here, but the bulk of the wool grown was exported, not worked up in England. In , however, there was a mill for fulling or bleaching wool in Manchester, and by the middle of the 16th century there was quite a flourishing trade in worsted goods.

The 17th century saw the birth of the class of clothiers, who purchased the wool in large quantities or kept their own sheep, and delivered it to weavers who worked it up into cloth in their houses and returned it to the employers. The earliest mention of the manufacture of real cotton goods is in , when Manchester made fustians, vermilions and dimities, but the industry did not develop to any extent until after the invention of the fly shuttle by John Kay in , of the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves of Blackburn in , of the water frame throstle by Richard Arkwright of Bolton in , and of the mule by Samuel Crompton of Hall-in-the-Wood near Bolton in So rapid was the development of the cotton manufacture that in there were over forty cotton mills in Lancashire, all worked by water power.

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In , however, steam was applied to the industry in Manchester, and in in Bolton a cotton mill was worked by steam. During the 18th century the only town where maritime trade increased was Liverpool, where in the last decade about ships arrived annually of a tonnage about one-fifth that of the London shipping. The prosperity of Liverpool was closely bound up with the slave trade, and about one-fourth of its ships were employed in this business. With the increase of trade the means of communication improved.

In the duke of Bridgewater began the Bridgewater canal from Worsley to Salford and across the Irwell to Manchester, and before the end of the century the county was intersected by canals. In the first railway in England was opened between Manchester and Liverpool, and other railways rapidly followed.

The first recorded instance of parliamentary representation in Lancashire was in , when two knights were returned for the county and two burgesses each for the boroughs of Lancaster, Preston, Wigan and Liverpool. Lancaster ceased to send members in after making nineteen returns, but renewed its privileges in ; from to there are no parliamentary returns, but from to Lancaster continued to return two members. Preston similarly was excused after , after making eleven returns, but in and from onwards returned two members. Liverpool and Wigan sent members in and , but not again till Thus in all Lancashire returned fourteen members, and, with a brief exception during the Commonwealth, this continued to be the parliamentary representation till By the Reform Act of Lancashire was assigned four members, two for the northern and two for the southern division.

Lancaster, Preston, Wigan and Liverpool continued to send two members, Clitheroe returned one and Newton was disfranchised. In a third member was given to South Lancashire and in the county was divided into four constituencies, to each of which four members were assigned; since the county returns twenty-three members. The boroughs returned from to twenty-five members, and since thirty-four. Whalley abbey, first founded at Stanlawe in Cheshire in , and removed in , belonged to the same order. A convent of Augustinian friars was founded at Cartmel in , and one at Warrington about There are some remains of the Benedictine priory of Upholland, changed from a college of secular priests in ; and the same order had a priory at Lancaster founded in , a cell at Lytham, of the reign of Richard I.

The Premonstratensians had Cockersand abbey, changed in from a hospital founded in the reign of Henry II. The principal old castles are those of Lancaster; Dalton, a small rude tower occupying the site of an older building; two towers of Gleaston castle, built by the lords of Aldingham in the 14th century; the ruins of Greenhalgh castle, built by the first earl of Derby, and demolished after a siege by order of parliament in ; the ruins of Fouldrey in Piel Island near the entrance to Barrow harbour, erected in the reign of Edward III.

There are many old timber houses and mansions of interest, as well as numerous modern seats. See Victoria History of Lancashire ; E. Fishwick, A History of Lancashire ; W. Pink and A. Beavan, The Parliamentary Representation of Lancashire But the history of the family and of the title goes back to the reign of Henry III. This Edmund received in his own day the surname of Crouchback, not, as was afterwards supposed, from a personal deformity, but from having worn a cross upon his back in token of a crusading vow.

He is not a person of much importance in history except in relation to a strange theory raised in a later age about his birth, which we shall notice presently. His son Thomas, who inherited the title, took the lead among the nobles of Edward II. At the commencement of the following reign his attainder was reversed and his brother Henry restored to the earldom; and Henry being appointed guardian to the young king Edward III. This Henry Wryneck died in without heir male. It was from these two dukes that the rival houses of Lancaster and York derived their respective claims to the crown. But the rights of Clarence were conveyed in the first instance to an only daughter, and the ambition and policy of the house of Lancaster, profiting by advantageous circumstances, enabled them not only to gain possession of the throne but to maintain themselves in it for three generations before they were dispossessed by the representatives of the elder brother.

As for John of Gaunt himself, it can hardly be said that this sort of politic wisdom is very conspicuous in him. His ambition was generally more manifest than his discretion; but fortune favoured his ambition, even as to himself, somewhat beyond expectation, and still more in his posterity. Before the death of his father he had become the greatest subject in England, his three elder brothers having all died before him.

The title, however, was an empty one, the throne of Castile being actually in the possession of Henry of Trastamara, whom the English had vainly endeavoured to set aside. His military and naval enterprises were for the most part disastrous failures, and in England he was exceedingly unpopular. Nevertheless the suspicion with which he was regarded was not altogether quieted when Richard came to the throne, a boy in the eleventh year of his age.

On gaining possession of London they burnt his magnificent palace of the Savoy. Richard found a convenient way to get rid of John of Gaunt by sending him to Castile to make good his barren title, and on this expedition he was away three years. He succeeded so far as to make a treaty with his rival, King John, son of Henry of Trastamara, for the succession, by virtue of which his daughter Catherine became the wife of Henry III.

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